In conclusion, the deadlock to address emissions from international maritime transport can be resolved through the proposed architecture, balancing the interests of all parties.
The cap-and-charge instrument has been shown to be flexible, efficient and effective. Importantly, it has already gained support from several states.
The legal precedence for supra-national charges already exists in shipping through the IOPC Funds. The process to implement amendments to existing maritime environmental regimes can be as quick as 16 months.
The proposed architecture can be used to hammer out the maritime deal on the right political level - and in time for the key Copenhagen Climate Change Talks in 2009. Otherwise, the risk of inaction is twofold: repeat Kyoto’s failure to address international transport emissions, and fail to provide financing for adaptation to climate change crucially needed for the most vulnerable.